1. The following statements have been made about cost plus pricing.

(1) A price in excess of full cost per unit will ensure that a company will cover all its costs and make a profit.

(2) Cost plus pricing is an appropriate pricing strategy when jobs are carried out to customer specifications.

Which of the above statements is/are true?

2. A benefit sacrificed by taking one course of action instead of the most profitable alternative course of action is known as which of the following?

3. Which of the following terms would NOT normally be used to describe a relevant cost for a decision?

4. High Limited is considering a new project that will require the use of a currently idle machine. The machine has a current book value of $12,000 and a potential disposal value of $10,500 (before $200 disposal costs) and hence has been under depreciated by $1,500 over its life to date. If the machine is to be fit for purpose on the new project it will have to be relocated at a cost of $500 and refitted at a further cost of $800. What is the relevant cost of using the machine on the new project?

5. A decision tree is a way of representing decision choices in the form of a diagram. It is usual for decision trees to include probabilities of different outcomes.

The following statements have been made about decision trees.

(1) Each possible outcome from a decision is given an expected value.

(2) Each possible outcome is shown as a branch on a decision tree.

Which of the above statements is/are true?

6. The standard costs and revenues of Deep Co's only product are as follows:

Per Unit $

Sales price 60

Direct materials 12

Direct labour 15

Variable production overhead 3

Fixed production overhead 15

Profit 15

Fixed overheads are absorbed on budgeted production and sales of 10,000 units per year. Sales staff receive a sales commission of 5% of sales revenue.

What is Deep Co's margin of safety (to the nearest whole %)?

7. A company has fixed costs of $1.3 million. Variable costs are 55% of sales up to a sales level of $1.5 million, but at higher volumes of production and sales, the variable cost for incremental production units falls to 52% of sales.

What is the breakeven point in sales revenue, to the nearest $1,000?

8. Analysing the range of different possible outcomes from a particular situation, with a computer model that uses random numbers, is known as which of the following?

9. An organisation is considering the costs to be incurred in respect of a special order opportunity. The order would require 1,250 kgs of material R, that is readily available and regularly used by the organisation on its normal products.

There are 265 kgs of material R in inventory which cost $795 last week. The current market price is $3.24 per kg. Material R is normally used to make product J. Each unit of J requires 3 kgs of material R, and if material R is costed at $3 per kg, each unit of J yields a contribution of $15.

What is the relevant cost of material R to be included in the costing of the special order?

10. A company uses linear programming to decide on the production and sales budget that will maximise total contribution and profit for a financial period. The optimal solution involves using all available direct labour hours, for which the shadow price is $4.50 per hour, and machine hours, for which the shadow price is $3 per machine hour. Direct labour is paid $8 per hour. If the objective of the company is to maximise total contribution and profit in each period, how much should the company be willing to pay per hour to obtain additional direct labour hours of production capacity?

11. GG Company has been asked to quote for a special contract. The contract requires 100 hours of labour. However, the labourers, who are each paid $15 per hour, are working at full capacity. There is a shortage of labour in the market. The labour required to undertake this special contract would have to be taken from another contract, H, which currently utilises 500 hours of labour and generates $5,000 worth of contribution.

If the labour was taken from contract H, then the whole of contract would have to be delayed, and such delay would invoke a penalty fee of $1,000.

What is the relevant cost of the labour for the special contract?

12. Steven is short of labour for a new one-off project needing 600 hours of labour and has choices as to where to source this. He could hire new people temporarily from an agency at a cost of $9 per hour. Alternatively, he could recruit new temporary staff at a fixed cost of advertising of $1,200 but then only pay $6 per hour for the time. He could also redirect some staff from existing work who are currently paid $7 per hour and who make sandals that generate a contribution of $3 per hour after all variable costs. Sandals are a good selling product and Steven will lose the production and the related sales whilst staff is working on the new one-off project.

What is the relevant cash flow?

13. Which TWO statements are true when using linear programming to solve production problems?

14. What is the main purpose of sensitivity analysis?

15. What method of uncertainty or risk analysis is also called 'What if?' analysis?

16. In order to utilise some spare capacity, V is preparing a quotation for a special order which requires 2,000 kgs of material O.

V has 800 kgs of material O in inventory (original cost $7.00 per kg). Material O is used in the company’s main product I. Each unit of I uses 5 kgs of material O and, based on an input value of $7.00 per kg of O, each unit of I yields a contribution of $10.00.

The resale value of material O is $5.50 per kg. The present replacement price of material O is $8.00 per kg. Material O is readily available in the market.

What is the relevant cost of the 2,000 kgs of material O to be included in the quotation?

17. Richard is considering a new project but is unsure how much overhead to include in the calculations to help him decide whether or not to proceed. Existing fixed overheads are absorbed at the rate of $8 per hour worked. Richard is certain that the project will involve an incremental 500 labour hours.

The project will involve extra machine running costs and these variable overheads cost him $4 per hour. The number of extra machine hours is expected to be 450 hours. The difference between this figure and the 500 labour hours above is expected idle time.

The project will require a little more temporary space that can be rented at a fixed cost of $1,200 for the period of hire. This overhead is not included in the fixed overhead absorption rate above

What is the overhead to be charged against the project decision?

18. T plc intends to use relevant costs as the basis of the selling price for a special order: the printing of a brochure. The brochure requires a particular type of paper that is not regularly used by T plc although a limited amount is in T plc’s inventory which was left over from a previous job. The cost when T plc bought this paper last year was $15 per ream and there are 100 reams in inventory. The brochure requires 250 reams. The current market price of the paper is $26 per ream, and the resale value of the paper in inventory is $10 per ream. What is the relevant cost of the paper to be used in printing the brochure?

19. Tulip Limited is considering changing the way it is structured by asking its employed staff to become freelance. Employees are currently paid a fixed salary of $240,000 per annum, but would instead be paid $200 per working day. On a typical working day, staff can produce 40 units. Other fixed costs are $400,000 per annum.

The selling price of a unit is $60 and material costs are $20 per unit.

What will be the effect of the change on the breakeven point of the business and the level of operating risk?

20. Which TWO pieces of information are required when deciding, purely on financial grounds, whether or not to process a joint product further?

22. Which of the following statements about graphical linear programming with the objective of maximising profit is true?

(1) If a resource constraint line does not pass through the optimum point on the graph, then the shadow price of that resource is zero

(2) The shadow price is the maximum amount a company should pay for one more unit of a scarce resource

(3) The slope or gradient of the objective function depends on the amount of resources available to the organization

23. A company has produced the following Profit/Volume (P/V) chart for its sole product:

What are the total fixed costs for the product?

24. A business produces three products, P1, P2 and P3. Each of these products requires different amounts of material (material Y), which is a scarce resource. The following budgeted data relates to the three products:

Per unit: P1 P2 P3

$ $ $

Selling price 200 150 100

Materials ($5 per kg) (35) (20) (10)

Labour ($20 per hour) (50) (25) (10)

Variable overheads (45) (45) (30)

Fixed overheads (30) (25) (20)

Profit per unit 40 35 30

Insert the products to the order in which they should be manufactured to ensure profit is maximised.

25. N Co uses a marginal cost plus pricing system to determine the selling price for one of its products, Product K.

Product K has the following costs:

$

Direct materials 12

Direct labour 5

Variable overheads 3

Fixed overheads 40

Fixed overheads are $20,000 for the year. Budgeted output and sales for the year are 500 units and this should be sufficient for Product K to break even.

What profit mark-up would N Co need to add to the marginal cost to allow N Co to break even?

26. Wilton sells two products with selling prices and contributions as follows:

Product D Product M

Selling price per unit $40 $20

Contribution per unit $10 $4

Budgeted sales units 150,000 100,000

Wilton’s’ fixed costs are $1,400,000 per year.

What is Wilton’s’ current breakeven revenue (to the nearest $)?

27. Wilton sells two products with selling prices and contributions as follows:

Product D Product M

Selling price per unit $40 $20

Contribution per unit $10 $4

Budgeted sales units 150,000 100,000

Wilton’s’ fixed costs are $1,400,000 per year.

Wilton now anticipates that more customers will buy the cheaper product M and that budgeted sales will be 150,000 units for each product.

What would be the impact on the break-even revenue if the sales volume of M increases?

28. A company makes and sells product F and product G. Twice as many units of product G are made and sold as that of product F. Each unit of product F makes a contribution of $10 and each unit of product G makes a contribution of $4. Fixed costs are $90,000.

What is the total number of units which must be made and sold to make a profit of $45,000?

29. A company is making product Z with the following cost card:

$ $

Selling price 100

Marginal 25

Labour 30

Variable overheads 20

Fixed overheads 10

(85)

Profit 15

Each unit of Z takes one hour to make, and the available labour and machinery are fully used in its current production of Z. The company is considering making a new product, L, but would have to divert labour and machine use from product Z.

What is the relevant total cost per hour for labour and variable overheads which should be included in the cost of product L?

30. A manufacturing company makes two joint products, CP1 and CP2, in a common process. These products can be sold at the split-off point in an external market, or processed further in separate processes to produce products FP1 and FP2. Details of these processes are shown in the diagram.

CP1 has a market price of $6 per kg and CP2 has a market price of $5 per kg. Relevant further processing costs are $2 per input kg in the process to make FP1 and $3 per input kg in the process to make FP2. Both FP1 and FP2 sell for $9 per kg.

For each 10,000 kg input to the common process, how much additional profit is obtained by further processing each of the joint products instead of selling them at the split-off point?

31. A company manufactures and sells a single product with a variable cost per unit of $36. It has a contribution to sales ratio (C/S ratio) of 25%. The company has weekly fixed costs of $18,000. Which of the following is the weekly breakeven point in units?

32. A company makes two products, X and Y, using the same type of direct labour. Production capacity per period is restricted to 60,000 direct labour hours. The contribution per unit is $8 for Product X and $6 for Product Y. The following constraints apply to production and sales:

x ≤ 10,000 (Sales demand for Product X)

y ≤ 12,000 (Sales demand for Product Y)

5x + 4y ≤ 60,000 (Direct labour hours)

The contribution-maximising output is to produce and sell 10,000 units of Product X and 2,500 units of Product Y.

What is the shadow price per direct labour hour and for how many additional hours of labour does this shadow price per hour apply?

33. E Co makes two products – E1 and E2 – budgeted details of which are as follows:

E1 E2

$ $

Selling price 10.00 8.00

Cost per unit:

Direct materials 3.50 4.00

Direct labour 1.50 1.00

Variable overhead 0.60 0.40

Fixed overhead 1.20 1.00

Profit per unit 3.20 1.60

Budgeted production and sales for the year ended 30 November 20X7 are:

Product E1 10,000 units

Product E2 12,500 units

The fixed overhead costs included in E1 relate to apportionment of general overhead costs only. However, E2 also includes specific fixed overheads totaling $2,500.

If only product E1 were to be made, how many units (to the nearest unit) would need to be sold in order to achieve a profit of $60,000 each year?

34. The price elasticity of demand for a product at its current price level is inelastic. What will happen to the total revenue and the profit if the price of the product is reduced?

35. Which method of pricing is most easily applied when two or more markets for the product or service can be kept entirely separate from each other?

37. The following statements have been made about price elasticity of demand.

(1) When sales demand is inelastic, a company can increase profits by raising the selling price of its product.

(2) Price elasticity of demand is measured as the amount of change in sales price (measured as a percentage of the current sales price) divided by the amount of change in quantity demanded (measured as a percentage of the current sales volume).

Which of the above statements is/are true?

38. An organisation manufactures and sells a single product, the R. It has produced the following budget for the coming year:

$000 $000

Sales revenue (20,000 units) 5,000

Manufacturing costs

Fixed 1,600

Variable 1,400

Selling costs

Fixed 1,200

Variable 400

Cost of sales (4,600)

––––––

Profit 400

––––––

If inventory levels are negligible, what is the breakeven point in units?

39. What does the shaded area on the breakeven chart above represent?

40. A company produces and sells a single product. Budgeted sales are $2.4 million, budgeted fixed costs are $360,000 and the margin of safety is $400,000. What are budgeted variable costs?

41. The following breakeven chart has been drawn for a company’s single product:

Which of the following statements about the product are correct?

(1) The product’s selling price is $10 per unit.

(2) The product’s variable cost is $8 per unit.

(3) The product incurs fixed costs of $30,000 per period.

(4) The product earns a profit of $70,000 at a level of activity of 10,000 units.

42. A company makes and sells a single product. When sales per month are $6.8 million, total costs are $6.56 million. When sales per month are $5.2 million, total costs are $5.44 million. There is a step cost increase of $400,000 in fixed costs when sales are $6.0 million, but variable unit costs are constant at all levels of output and sales.

What is the breakeven point for sales revenue per month?

43. A company makes and sells four products. Direct labour hours are a scarce resource, but the company is able to sub-contract production of any products to external suppliers. The following information is relevant.

Product P Q R S

$ per unit $ per unit $ per unit $ per unit

Sales price 10 8 12 14

Variable cost 8 5 8 12

Cost of external purchase 9 7.1 10 13

Direct labour hours per unit 0.1 0.3 0.25 0.2

Match the products to the order of priority in which the company should make them in-house, rather than purchase them externally.

44. The demand for a product at its current price has a price elasticity greater than 1.0 (ignoring the minus sign). Which of the following statements must be correct?

(1) A reduction in the sales price will increase total revenue.

(2) A reduction in the sales price by x% will result in a percentage increase in sales demand which is greater than x%.

(3) An increase in the selling price will increase total profit.

45. A company makes a single product with the following data:

$ $

Selling price 25

Material 5

Labour 7

Variable overhead 3

Fixed overhead 4 (19)

–––

Profit per unit 6

–––

Budgeted output is 30,000 units.

In relation to this data, which of the following statements is correct?

46. A company wishes to go ahead with one of three mutually exclusive projects, but the profit outcome from each project will depend on the strength of sales demand, as follows.

Strong demand Moderate demand Weak demand

Profit Profit Profit/(Loss)

$ $ $

Project 1 70,000 10,000 (7,000)

Project 2 25,000 12,000 5,000

Project 3 50,000 20,000 (6,000)

Probability of demand 0.1 0.4 0.5

What is the value to the company of obtaining this perfect market research information, ignoring the cost of obtaining the information?

47. The management accountant of Colin plc has calculated the firm’s breakeven point from the following data:

Selling price per unit $20

Variable costs per unit $8

Fixed overheads for next year $79,104

It is now expected that the product’s selling price and variable cost will increase by 8% and 5.2% respectively.

By how much will Colin’s breakeven point for next year change by as a result of these changes?

48. Darim Ltd manufactures and sells a single product that has the following cost and selling price structure:

$/unit

Selling price 199

Direct material 54

Direct labour 50

Variable overhead 20

Fixed overhead 22

–––

53

–––

The fixed overhead absorption rate is based on the normal budgeted capacity of 6,200 units per month. The same amount is spent each month on fixed overheads.

Which TWO of the following statements about the performance of Darim Ltd next month are correct?

49. A company wishes to decide on a selling price for a new product. Weekly sales of each product will depend on the price charged and also on customers' response to the new product. The following pay-off table has been prepared.

Probability Price P1 Price P2 Price P3 Price P4

$ $ $ $

Price 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50

Unit contribution 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50

Weekly demand Units Units Units Units

Best possible 0.3 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000

Most likely 0.5 8,000 7,500 7,000 6,000

Worst possible 0.2 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000

If the choice of selling price is based on a maximin decision rule, which price would be selected?

50. A company makes two products with the following characteristics.

Product F Product G

Contribution to sales ratio 0.3 0.5

Selling price per unit $3.00 $4.80

Maximum demand 8,000 units 3,000 units

Fixed costs are $9,000.

What is the minimum revenue required for production to break even?

51. The following profit-volume chart for three products, has been prepared:

Which TWO of the following statements about the above chart are correct?

52. A company wants to decide whether to make its materials in-house or to sub-contract production to an external supplier. In the past it has made four materials in-house, but demand in the next year will exceed in-house production capacity of 8,000 units. All four materials are made on the same machines and require the same machine time per unit: machine time is the limiting production factor.

The following information is available.

Material A B C D

Units required 4,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

Variable cost of

in-house Manufacture $8 per unit $12 per unit $9 per unit $10 per unit

Directly attributable

fixed cost expenditure $5,000 $8,000 $6,000 $7,000

Cost of external purchase $9 per unit $18 per unit $12 per unit $12 per unit

Directly attributable fixed costs are fixed cash expenditures that would be saved if production of the material in-house is stopped entirely.

If a decision is made solely on the basis of short-term cost considerations, what materials should the company purchase externally?

54. A company budgets to sells its three products X, Y and Z in the ratio 2:3:5 respectively, measured in units of sales. Unit sales prices and variable costs are as follows.

Product X Y Z

$ per unit $ per unit $ per unit

Sales price 20 18 24

Variable cost 11 12 18

Budgeted fixed costs are $1.2 million. What sales will be needed to achieve a target profit of $400,000 for the period? Give your answer in millions, to 3 decimal points.

55. The shadow price of skilled labour for CBV is currently $8 per hour. What does this mean?

56. Which of the following statements is true of pricing?

57. Which TWO of the following circumstances (in relation to the launch of a new product) favour a penetration pricing strategy?

58. A product has a prime cost of $12, variable overheads of $3 per unit and fixed overheads of $6 per unit.

Which pricing policy gives the highest price?

60. Which FOUR of the following are to be correctly included in the considerations in a make or buy decision?

61. Katia Limited is considering whether or not to cease production of leather-bound diaries.

Which TWO of the following items are valid factors to consider in this decision?

62. A company makes and sells three products. The budget for the next period is as follows:

Product H I J

$ per unit $ per unit $ per unit

Sales price 12 18 20

Variable cost 3 6 11

9 12 9

Fixed cost 6 9 6

Profit 3 3 3

Number of units 30,000 40,000 10,000

What is the breakeven point in sales, to the nearest $1,000?

63. Which TWO of the following statements about sensitivity analysis are correct?

64. Which of the following conditions would need to be true for a price skimming strategy to be effective?

65. The following price and demand combinations have been given:

P1 = $400, Q1 = 5,000 units

P2 = $380, Q2 = 5,500 units

The variable cost is a constant at $80 per unit and fixed costs are $600,000 per annum.

The optimal price is (to the nearest $):

66. In a linear programming problem to determine the contribution-maximising production and sales volumes for two products, X and Y, the following information is available.

Product X Product Y Total available

per unit per unit per period

Direct labour hours 2 hours 4 hours 10,000 hours

Material X 4 kg 2 kg 14,000 kg

Contribution per unit $12 $18

The profit-maximising level of output and sales is 3,000 units of Product X and 1,000 units of Product Y.

What is the shadow price of a direct labour hour?

67. Which of the following statements regarding market penetration as a pricing strategy is/are correct?

(1) It is useful if significant economies of scale can be achieved.

(2) It is useful if demand for a product is highly elastic.

69. Which of the following “C” words is not traditionally considered when setting a price?

70. A company has used expected values to evaluate a one-off project. The expected value calculation assumed two possible profit outcomes which were assigned probabilities of 0.4 and 0.6.

Which TWO of the following statements about this approach are correct?

71. Which of the following is considered to be a form of secondary research?

72. Which of the following is the correct definition of imperfect information?

73. Which of the following conditions must be true for a price discrimination strategy to be effective?

74. An organisation has created the following linear programming solution to represent the position it faces currently in the presence of short-term scarce resources:

The point marked B has been determined to be the point which provides the optimal production plan.

Which of the following resources will have a shadow price greater than 0? (select all that apply)

75. The following price and demand combinations have been given:

P1 = $400, Q1 = 5,000 units

P2 = $380, Q2 = 5,500 units

The variable cost is a constant at $80 per unit and fixed costs are $600,000 per annum.

What is the demand function?

76. An organisation has the following contribution function:

Contribution = 5X + 10Y

where

X = the number of units of product X produced, and

Y = the number of units of product Y produced.

A graph has identified that the optimal production plan exists at the point where the following two constraints cross:

Skilled labour: 6X + 4Y ≤ 62,000

Unskilled labour: 2X + 5Y ≤ 50,000

There is a maximum demand of 12,000 units of each product.

What is the number of units of Product Y produced in order to maximise contribution (to the nearest whole unit)?

77. A linear programming model has been formulated for two products, X and Y. The objective function is depicted by the formula C = 5X + 6Y, where C = contribution, X = the number of product X to be produced and Y = the number of product Y to be produced.

Each unit of X uses 2 kg of material Z and each unit of Y uses 3 kg of material Z. The standard cost of material Z is $2 per kg.

The shadow price for material Z has been worked out and found to be $2.80 per kg.

If an extra 20 kg of material Z becomes available at $2 per kg, what will the maximum increase in contribution be?

78. If demand for a product is 5,000 units when the price is $400 and 6,000 units when the price is $380, what are the demand and MR equations?

| Demand | MR |

A. | P = 500 – 0.02Q | MR = 500 – 0.04Q |

B. | P = 500 + 0.02Q | MR = 500 + 0.04Q |

C. | P = 300 – 0.02Q | MR = 300 – 0.02Q |

D. | P = 300 + 0.02Q | MR = 300 + 0.02Q |

79. Dolphin Co makes joint products X and Y. $120,000 joint processing costs are incurred. At the split-off point, 10,000 units of X and 9,000 units of Y are produced, with selling prices of $1.20 for X and $1.50 for Y.

The units of X could be processed further to make 8,000 units of product Z. The extra costs incurred in this process would be fixed costs of $1,600 and variable costs of $0.50 per unit of input.

The selling price of Z would be $2.25.

What profit or loss will arise if product X is further processed?

80. Which of the following statements is/are correct?

- Risk-averse decision makers will use the expected value approach to decision making.
- In a one-off decision, the expected value is a value that cannot actually occur.

81. Are the following statements about simulation true or false?

A. Simulation models can be used to study alternative solutions to a problem.

B. A simulation model cannot prescribe what should be done about a problem.

C. The equations describing the operating characteristics of the system are known.

D. Simulation models the behaviour of a system.

82. A business is considering investing in a project which is very dependent on whether a government grant is received.

Details on the project are as follows:

Grant received Grant not received Overall expected value

Probability 30% 70%

Expected profits/(loss) $200,000 ($80,000) $4,000

It is now concerned that the expected loss when the grant is not received has been underestimated.

What would the expected loss when the grant is not received have to increase to in order to no longer make the project worthwhile?

83. Jack is considering the relevant cash flows involved in a short-term decision. An important client has asked for the minimum price for the processing of a compound. The compound involves the following:

Material A: Jack needs 500 kg of material for the compound but has 200 kg in stock present. The stock items were bought 3 months ago for $5/kg but have suffered 10% shrinkage since that date. Material A is not regularly used in the business and would have to be disposed of at a cost to Jack of $400 in total. The current purchase price of material A is $6.25/kg.

Material B: Jack needs 800 kg of material B and has this in stock as it is regularly needed. The stock was bought 2 months ago for $4/kg although it can be bought now at $3.75/kg due to its seasonal nature.

Processing energy costs would be $200, and the supervisor says he would allocate $150 of his weekly salary to the job in the company’s job costing system.

Based upon the scenario information, what is the total cost of material A and B to be built into the minimum price calculation (to the nearest $)?

84. The demand for a product is 5,000 units when the price is $400 and 6,000 units when price is $380. The variable cost of the product is $200.

What is the optimum price to be charged in order to maximise profit?

85. A jewellery company makes rings (R) and necklaces (N).

The resources available to the company have been analysed and two constraints have been identified:

Labour time 3R + 2N < 2,400 hours Machine time 0.5R + 0.4N < 410 hours

The management accountant has used linear programming to determine that R = 500 and N = 400.

Which of the following is/are slack resources?

- Machine time available
- Labour time available

86. Which of the following approaches to decision making is a risk-seeking approach?

87. R plc makes two products – Rone and Rtwo – from the same raw material. The selling price and cost details of these products are as shown below:

Rone Rtwo

$ $

Selling price 20.00 18.00

––––– –––––

Direct material ($2.00 per kg) 6.00 5.00

Direct labour 4.00 3.00

Variable overhead 2.00 1.50

––––– –––––

12.00 9.50

––––– –––––

Contribution per unit 8.00 8.50

The maximum demand for these products is 500 units per week for Rone, and an unlimited number of units per week for Rtwo.

What is the shadow price of these materials, if material were limited to 2,000 kgs per week?

88. A company currently makes two products, A and B.

Both products use material X which is in limited supply, and current production levels are using the entire weekly supply.

Product A uses 5kg of X per unit; product B uses 5kg of X per unit.

Material X is costing currently $3 per kg, and the shadow price for material X has been calculated as $3.70 per kg.

The supplier of material X is prepared to increase the weekly supply by 10kg.

What is the most per kg that the company should be prepared to pay for the extra material?

89. The following details relate to three services provided by JKL Company:

Service J Service K Service L

$ $ $

Fee charged to customers 100 150 160

Unit service costs:

Direct materials 15 30 25

Direct labour 20 35 30

Variable overhead 15 20 22

Fixed overhead 25 50 50

All three services use the same type of direct labour which is paid $25 per hour.

The fixed overheads are general fixed overheads that have been absorbed based on machine hours.

What are the most and least profitable uses of direct labour, a scarce resource?

90. A company selling soft drinks runs a promotional campaign, during which they sell their products at a large discount. The campaign will last for 2 weeks.

This is an example of which of the following pricing policies?

91. An organisation is experiencing a shortage of resources and has graphed a potential linear programming solution which shows its first product, televisions, on the horizontal axis and its other product, tablet computers, on the vertical axis.

The iso-contribution line to solve the linear programme is very flat and downward sloping. Which of the following statements is likely to be true for the company?

92. A brand new game is about to be launched. The game is unique and can only be played on the Star2000 gaming console, another one of the businesses products. Students are entitled to a small discount.

Which THREE of the following pricing strategies could be used to price the game?

93. V is considering whether to continue making a component or to buy it from an outside supplier. It uses 12,000 of the components each year.

The internal manufacturing cost comprises:

$/unit

Direct materials 3.00

Direct labour 4.00

Variable overhead 1.00

Specific fixed cost 2.50

Other fixed costs 2.00

–––––

12.50

–––––

If the direct labour were not used to manufacture the component, it would be used to increase the production of another item for which there is unlimited demand. This other item has a contribution of $10.00 per unit but requires $8.00 of labour per unit.

What is the maximum price per component, at which buying is preferable to internal manufacture?

94. A linear programming model has been formulated for two products, A and B, manufactured by X Co.

Which TWO of the following statements about linear programming are true?

95. A computer manufacturer gives a discount to customers who are in full-time education. This is an example of which of the following pricing policies?

96. Emran Co is considering employing a sales manager. Market research has shown that a good sales manager can increase profit by 30%, an average one by 20% and a poor one by 10%. Experience has shown that the company has attracted a good sales manager 35% of the time, an average one 45% of the time and a poor one 20% of the time. The company’s normal profits are $180,000 per annum and the sales manager’s salary would be $40,000 per annum. Based on the expected value criterion, which of the following represents the correct advice which Emran Co should be given?

97. An organisation has the following contribution function:

Contribution = 12A + 8B, where

A = the number of units of product A produced, and

B = the number of units of product B produced.

A graph has identified that the optimal production plan exists at the point where the following two constraints cross:

Material X: A + 2B ≤ 8,000

Material Y: 2A + B ≤ 13,000

There is a maximum demand of 10,000 units of each product.

How many units of Product A are produced in order to maximise contribution?

98. A company is considering the development and marketing of a new product. Development costs will be $2m. There is a 75% probability that the development effort will be successful, and a 25% probability that it will be unsuccessful. If development is successful and the product is marketed, it is estimated that:

Profit Probability

Product very successful $6.0m 0.4

Product moderately successful $1.8m 0.4

Product unsuccessful ($5.0m) 0.2

What is the expected value of profit for the new product?

99. Alec Co uses fork-lift trucks in its warehouses. The management accountant is deciding which grade of trucks to buy based on the company’s risk appetite. There are three grades of truck, the A series, B series and the C series. The decision for the truck is dependent on Alec Co’s growth in its online market which could be at 15%, 30% or 40% for the next period.

The management accountant has correctly produced a pay-off table showing the daily contribution earned for each of the outcomes.

Pay-off table | Type of truck |

Growth rate | | A series | B series | C series |

15% | $2,400 | $1,800 | $3,600 |

30% | $1,400 | $1,900 | $4,500 |

40% | $4,900 | $2,800 | $3,900 |

If Alec Co is risk averse, which grade of truck will it purchase?’ Enter the letter only.

100. Which of the following statements is/are true?

- A multi-product breakeven chart may be drawn only if a constant sales mix is assumed.
- A multi-product profit-volume chart may be drawn that shows the contribution of each product as against the breakeven sales volume.

101. A company can make either of two new products, X and Y, but not both. The profitability of each product depends on the state of the market, as follows:

Market state | Profit from product | Probability of market state |

| X $ | Y $ | |

Good | 20,000 | 17,000 | 0.2 |

Fair | 15,000 | 16,000 | 0.5 |

Poor | 6,000 | 7,000 | 0.3 |

What is the expected value of perfect information as to the state of the market?

102. A company needs 5,000 hours of labour for a contract they have been asked to quote for. The work currently being carried out by our employees is generating a contribution of $12 per hour, although there is currently a substantial amount of idle time. Our workers are paid at the rate of $8 per hour.

What is the relevant cost of the labour required for the contract?